Date of disgorgement on the label?

I read a great article http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/11/dining/reviews/champagnes-disgorgement-dates-provoke-debate.html? on whether producers should incorporate the disgorgement date on the label or not. I guess there are many answers as to do so or not to do and at least stirr some debate!

However I have been noticing that Champagne producers are starting to do so. Very few of the big Grand Marques have done so, although there has been an increase in many many small and midsize producers which includes Bruno Paillard and Philipponnat that have done so for years. Ayala does now. Most significant, perhaps, Krug this year added a code that, when entered on its web site, offers detailed information about its Non Vintage that goes well beyond the disgorgement date.

As far as I’m concerned the more information we can share with our final consumer on our Graham Beck Cap Classique’s is always better. Most consumers will not care or pay attention to label information but there is a small and growing group of wine lovers does care, and catering to the curiosity of wine lovers has proved to be the best marketing of all.

There is merrit in both “time on the lees” and that of “time on the cork” and the effect of these are quite different. Rule of thumb is the longer the lees contact period the quicker you can start drinking the wines after disgorgement and the shorter the period on the lees the longer you have to wait to start enjoying the wine after disgorgement.

At the end of the day it is all about  the authenticity and provenance of the product that will ensure sustainable brand recognition and follow. It is important that a Non Vintage style from a house making bottle fermented wines expresses the true essence of the house style. When it comes to Vintage it has more the expression of the intrinsic of that specific year.

I am sure that this is a debate that will continue for a while but at the end of the day the more you are informed the better choice you can make!

 

Research to be done: “Effect of yeast contact time on the flavour profile and quality of Méthode Cap Classique.”

Very exciting news is that Winetech has finally given priority on the following topic which will be funded for two years. Hopefully this will be accepted by the end of July 2012 and introduced in March 2013. The project leader for this work will be done by Dr Neil Jolly. We will kindly be inviting up to six wineries to participate. In consideration of one of the aims of the Association to eventually aim to have a two tier system I think this will help to substantiate the aim of this research, very exciting.  Please see below the extract of the study:

“Effect of yeast contact time on the flavour profile and quality of Méthode Cap Classique.”

A two tier system (twelve month and 24 month) is being implemented for South African bottled fermented sparkling wine (Méthode Cap Classique). However, very little scientific data is available to support this classification.  This research topic has been given a high priority (level 1) by the Winetech Vinification Technology Committee. The objective of the project will be to collaborate with the Cap Classique Producers Association and specific Méthode Cap Classique (MCC) producers e.g. Graham Beck, in microbial, chemical and sensory monitoring and analyses of Chardonnay and Pinot noir MCC wines to confirm anecdotal evidence and give scientific support to legislation.

 The following requirement and commitment will be needed to participate form a member.

Six batches of commercial MCC wines will be identified in collaboration with the CCPA, three Chardonnays and three Pinot noirs. The Chardonnay wine will be 100% Chardonnay, but the Pinot noir may be a blend. The blends (cultivar and percentage) will be the same for the three batches wines as very few 100% Pinot noir MCC are produced in South Africa. The statistical design for the project can accept three participating cellars, each providing a Chardonnay as well as a Pinot noir, or six cellars providing one wine each.  Each batch will comprise of 72 individual bottles (yeast intact). The yeast used in all the wines will be the same industry standard.

Analyses will take place at 12 intervals. The first will be at eight months after bottling to provide a base measurement. Thereafter analyses will take place at nine, ten, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 21, 23 24 and 25 months. At each analysis interval five bottles will be obtained from the participating cellars. Three will be used for microbial and chemical analyses, one for sensory analyses and the remaining bottle will serve as a back-up. Where logistically possible, the bottles will be removed in a randomised manner. A second vintage will be evaluated in a similar manner to reduce vintage effects.

Sensory analyses will be performed on the wines with an expert panel from industry (representatives and/or winemakers belonging to the CCPA). Two ARC project team members will also form part of the sensory panel. Analyses will be by descriptive sensory analyses, followed by a panel discussion.

Should any one of you be interested in being part of the project and research please let me know so I could let Neil Jolly have the details of the wineries/cellars that would like to be involved. An outline of his research will be discussed at our up and coming technical day. Remember that you are required to sponsor 72 bottles at no charge and be able to get the wines to Nietvoorbji in Stellenbosch.

More information will follow shortly or as it becomes available. Please let me know pieter@grahambeckwines.co.za if you are interested

Cape Winemakers Guild takes on three new Protégés for 2012

The Cape Winemakers Guild Protégé Programme, a mentorship initiative which gives talented graduates the rare opportunity to work side by side with some of the country’s finest winemakers, now boasts a total of six protégés after three new candidates were recruited into the programme this year.

The Guild’s three new protégés are Heinrich Kulsen and Chandré Petersen, hailing from Paarl in the Western Cape and Philani Shongwe from Ulundi in KwaZulu-Natal.

Heinrich Kulsen who completed his degree in Cellar Technology at Elsenburg last year, joins Ernie Els under the mentorship of Louis Strydom. Thrilled to become a protégé Heinrich said: “It is an absolute privilege to be a part of the most noble wine organisation in the country.”

Completing her degree in Viticulture and Oenology also at Elsenburg, Chandré Petersen will be put through her paces under the watchful eye of winemaker Bernhard Veller at Nitida. With dreams of becoming a phenomenal winemaker, Chandré says: “I believe in building a solid practical and theoretical foundation to reach my goals and believe the Protégé programme will allow me to hone my skills and put into practice the theoretical background I have gained so far.”

Philani Shongwe, a proud graduate in Viticulture and Oenology from the University of Stellenbosch, shares Heinrich and Chandré’s sentiments at being selected as a protégé. “Completing this internship successfully is like gaining a treasure that no one can take away from me,” says Philani, interning at Paul Cluver where he will be learning his craft from winemaker Andries Burger.

The Cape Winemakers Guild Protégé Programme was launched in 2006 under the auspices of the Nedbank Cape Winemakers Guild Trust with the goal of bringing about transformation in the wine industry by cultivating, nurturing and empowering promising individuals to become winemakers of excellence.

Guild members are responsible for mentoring their Protégés for a minimum of six months and providing them with essential hands-on skills and experience.

For more information on the Guild, contact Tel: 021-852 0408 or send an email to info@capewinemakersguild.com. Students interested in applying for the Protégé Programme can visit the Guild’s website at http://www.capewinemakersguild.com.

Issued by: GC Communications Contact: Gudrun Clark
Tel: +27 +21-462 0520 Email: gudrun@gc-com.co.za

On behalf of: Cape Winemakers Guild Contact: Kate Jonker
Tel: +27 +21-852 0408 E-mail: kate@capewinemakersguild.com

Champagne on the Brain: The Neurologic Health Benefits of a Glass of Bubbly

http://blogcritics.org/scitech/article/champagne-on-the-brain-the-neurologic/

We have all heard that red wine is good for our hearts, white wine is good for our lungs, and – of course – all wine is good for our taste buds. But, recent findings have revealed Champagne may also be good for our minds. Move over Merlots and Rieslings, scientists now have Champagne on their brains.

An April 2007 article published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry reported findings that identify Champagne as a source of brain protection. This sparkling wine, according to the study, may help protect the brain from the injuries common with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s, and stroke.

The reason for Champagne’s ability, according to the researchers at Italy’s Universita degli studi di Cagliari and England’s University of Reading, lies in the high presence of polyphenols packed within every bottle.

Polyphenols, chemical substances derived from plants, are antioxidants, which help cells avoid death, destruction, and things like cancer. Red wine, once again grabbing the spotlight, is generally thought of as containing the highest concentration of polyphenols – making it one of the healthiest types of wine to drink – but previous research indicates that Champagne contains a high amount of another type of polyphenol, one that has the brain in mind.

To prove their hypothesis, researchers introduced Champagne to the neuron cells of rodents. In other words, they took the mice out drinking. After separating mice cells into two groups – a control group that received no treatment and one that would be penetrated with Champagne extracts – the scientists triggered a stroke.

Their discovery was that the group of neuron cells penetrated with Champagne extracts demonstrated a significant amount of protection against damage, while the group of neuron cells left alone was not able to fight off destruction.

The reason for this, they concluded, was that caffeic acid and tyrosol, antioxidants found in polyphenols, contain anti-inflammatory characteristics. This keeps them from responding to injury and damage. Caffeic acid and tyrosol also possess the ability to remove toxic chemicals, expunging them from a person’s (or a mouse’s) body. Both of these factors work together to help Champagne “top off” our well being.

These findings have now led to further investigation of Champagne’s influence on health and human lifespan, with a specific interest on its influence over aging. In the past, “the bubbly” has always been thought of a drink you want in hand during times of glee. A spirit with a sparkling personality, Champagne seemed to find itself permanently fermented in a celebratory role.

But, as more and more research is performed, Champagne has a chance to turn over a new leaf in medical science.

This life preserving task may be one Champagne takes on anew, but it’s one we hope goes to its – and our – heads.

With members of the health community raising its rank, Champagne is our new champion. So, as it puts a cork in brain injury, we propose a toast to the Dom Perignons, the Veuve Clicquots, and the Louis Roederers of the world. Fill your glass and ease your mind.

 

How export approval can cause problems for natural wines

Originally sent to me by Ken Forresster 28 February 2012

How export approval can hinder the sales of natural wines in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, some natural wine growers have been prevented from exporting their wines, even though they have buyers waiting: but this could be about to change

Imagine the situation. You’ve made a wine. Because you work more naturally, the wine is a little unconventional, but you have a loyal customer list who love your style. And you’ve just landed an export order. But there’s a problem: in order to sell your wines abroad, you need export approval. And that’s contingent on the wine passing a tasting panel. They don’t ‘get’ your wine, and they refuse export permission.
This is just what happened to Jamsheed, a small (2500 case) producer in Australia’s Yarra Valley, last year, with their single-vineyard Cabernet Franc, called ‘Mon Petite Francine’. Weighing in at just 12% alcohol, this is ever so slightly cloudy, but has lovely fresh, sappy cherry fruit with lovely perfume and a textured palate with a bit of spicy bite. It’s deliciously drinkable, and full of interest. But while this wine had been selling well locally, it was refused an export licence by Wine Australia, and so couldn’t leave the country.
It turns out that Jamsheed’s Cabernet Franc is just one of a number of interesting wines in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa that have been refused export permission, even though there are customers waiting.
Gary Mills, who owns Jamsheed, recounted this experience. ‘The 2011 Mon Petite Francine is a new label, born from a love of Loire-style reds. The wine is presented as a nouveau-style red for early consumption and has been selling very well in Melbourne.’ Mills has recently started exporting to Japan, and has an agent in Tokyo called Jeroboam. He sent samples to Tokyo which were tasted by the Jeroboam crew, Ned Goodwin MW and Kenichi Ohashi of the Somersault group. ‘They requested a five dozen allocation of the franc to be added to the larger shipment,’ reports Mills. ‘Export laws state that any shipment over 100 litres and or $2000 value must attain export approval. So my five dozen $11.50 AUS$ FOB wine—total value $690—was sent for export analysis. This cost $200, was couriered to the AWBC (Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation) for $67, and was tasted and rejected, and therefore pulled from the pallet at the docks at my expense and shipped back to me at my expense—yet to be determined.’
But the wine was rejected by the AWBC on the grounds that is was cloudy/turbid and mouldy. ‘Yes, the wine is unfiltered and unfined,’ says Mills, ‘but it is not mouldy. There is a mushroom/forest floor tone that would not be out of place in a Yarra Pinot Noir. It is not a perfect wine by any means—that being half the point—I’m not interested in producing technically correct wines but rather a unique site/terrior-driven tasting experience. The wine shows freshness, vitality and has piqued the interest of everyone who has tasted it.’
But all has not turned out badly for Mills, at least this time. The story of this export approval has led to a lot of discussion on social media. ‘The unexpected bonanza for me was the outpouring of support, both on social media and local physical purchases, from that moment,’ he says. ‘In the proceeding days I sold almost 20 dozen of the wine alone on sympathetic purchases and a further large amount to existing customers. As a result the wine will sell out before the end of September!’
James Erskine is another Australian winegrower who has hit a roadblock trying to gain Wine Australia export approval. Like Mills, he has made wines that have export orders, but isn’t allowed to ship them. His project, Natural Selection Theory, is a group of four winegrowers looking to make natural wines produced with a minimal level of electricity and no additions bar sulfur dioxide at bottling.
One of the wines they have made is called the ‘egg’ project, which is a full skin-fermented white from Semillon grown in the famous Hunter Valley Brokeback vineyard. ‘Since Hunter Semillon is the only true wine style Australia can call its own, we thought this the best place to start on our anti-terroir project,’ says Erskine. He explains that this project allows the group to experiment with the effect that fermentation vessels, skin contact and external energies (such as poetry and sound!) can have on a wine. Each wine comes ‘bottled’ in a one litre egg-shaped clay vessel (a smaller scale version of the clay vessel used to ferment the wine).
‘The long and the short of it is that we sold most of these eggs in Australia,’ says Erskine, ‘but we saved some for Caves de Pyrene [UK importer of natural wines] as Eric Nairoo had expressed interest after trying an egg with us last year.’ Erskine’s egg wine was rejected by Wine Australia’s tasting expert panel and deemed ‘out of condition’. ‘It was not fined or filtered and as you know many full-skin white ferments precipitate a haze,’ says Erskine. ‘The wine was also said to be oxidised even though it has a brilliant electric green hue (with golden mid-centre) and has 20 parts free sulfur on its export analysis.’
The export approval process has caused these natural winemakers problems, but the good news is that Wine Australia seems to be listening. As of today (31 Jan 2012), the tasting panel has been disbanded. Previously, all wines had to pass a panel of qualified wine inspectors who worked in pairs on a roster basis. Their brief was to be sure that a wine was ‘sound and merchantable’ in order for it to be exported. If a wine failed this test, it was tasted the next day by new inspectors who don’t know that the wine failed the day before. If the wine was rejected a second time, the winery had the option to have the wine reviewed independently. Approval lasts for 18 months, after which the wine had to be resubmitted. In 2010/11, just 43 out of 14 569 wines were refused export approval, which implies that lots of poor commercial wines got through and some of these interesting, unconventional natural wines didn’t.
‘The standards required for Australian wines have not changed, nor have the laws and regulations underpinning the quality and integrity of Australian wine, but our approach to administering these standards will move from reliance on pre-export product inspections to a risk-based approach,’ says Wine Australia’s Chief Executive, Andrew Cheesman. ‘When the current export controls were first introduced four decades ago, Australian table wine was hardly known overseas and there was a risk that even one faulty wine could hurt our reputation. Today we are an established and respected global producer and the market leader in some countries. We have a strong culture of compliance and our risk profile has changed considerably.’
This is a welcome change, but in other countries export panels continue to cause problems for unconventional winemakers.

Problems in New Zealand
New Zealand also has a similar system, and one high-end producer who has fallen foul of the system is Pyramid Valley Vineyards, in the north Canterbury Hills. Winegrower Mike Weersing explains how one of his wines, the 2009 Earth Smoke Pinot Noir, failed to get export permission because it has a very low titratable acidity (TA) level of <3.5g/l. ‘The acidities were low this year and pHs high,’ says Weersing. ‘In a season which combined a cool summer with a warm fall, in order to achieve full physiological maturity and greater hang time, higher than typical sugars and lower TAs were inevitable; our inclusion of 15% whole cluster, for aromatic interest, also of course pushed the pH. Finally, and most tellingly, we never make any tartaric acidic additions.’ He adds that, ‘I'm told that the original reason for the minimum TA stipulation was to prevent the importation of wines that had been watered down. A brief glance at the other figures on the wine—e.g. dry extract, yield and overall production—makes very clear that no water could have been added. What burns my ass is that if I were to open all bottles, and to add acid, then reclose and ship, the bureaucrats would be appeased.’

The South African perspective
Craig Hawkins, winemaker at Lammershoek in South Africa’s Swartland region, also explains some of the problems he has encountered. ‘Pretty much every wine that you make needs to be exported at some time or another and for this to happen it needs to be certified,’ says Hawkins. ‘The process of certification is a maximum three-strike step procedure. The wines are tasted blind before separate panels, and three strikes and you’re out, and then it is your choice to go before the Wine and Spirit Board (WSB) and pledge your case as to why the wine should be certified/ultimately exported overseas.’
Hawkins has consistently run into problems, both with the Lammershoek wines, and his own wines, Testalonga, which push the boundaries of naturalness a bit further. ‘My wines for Lammershoek always get a few strikes before eventually being pushed through, but my Testalonga wines have so far both gone the full three strikes, and this is where it gets quite frustrating, because you already have an export order in place, and the people overseas love the wine and want it, and the only thing holding it back is the individual tasters from South Africa.’
However, Hawkins is sympathetic to the tasters who refuse his wines export licences. ‘In all fairness, they have not tasted many skin macerated/long lees contact/no added sulfur dioxide white wines and thus anything different is immediately put down as a fault, and failed.’ So he had to go before the WSB and argue his case. ‘I have heard from numerous wine growers who have had similar problems of how backward and narrow minded the WSB were,’ says Hawkins, ‘but things are changing and I was pleasantly surprised to find that the majority of them were very open minded.’
‘I had to go in front of the Board with letters from people like Doug Wregg (Les Caves de Pyrene), Dirk Niepoort and my importer in Norway (Vinarius). This is your last chance: if you are rejected here then that’s it, you cannot export the wine in any way, and the wine is basically lost to anyone outside of the country. The board consisted of mainly wine makers themselves, my old university professor—pretty much “the old guard”—and you have to sit down around a table and discuss the wines, the winemaking method, and what you are trying to achieve. No one has tried to export or make skin macerated white wines commercially here, so it was something new for them. The panel accepted the wine, and I was extremely impressed with the way they were open to accept new things. I think this bodes well for the future of the South African wine industry.’ But Hawkins is honest enough to admit that if his wines had been rejected, he might be ‘singing a different tune now.’
Tom Lubbe, who makes the Observatory wines, had a less pleasant experience at the hands of the WSB. ‘In South Africa you have to get a wine passed by the WSB once a year, so even if we did get a wine passed the first time it would usually fail the second year (or vice versa),’ he explains. ‘The wines were often failed for being “oxidised” and then at the next tasting “reduced” (a month later). Lack of sulfur dioxide was also a formidable danger to Brand South Africa I was frequently told, as was a dangerous lack of filtration and fining. One time an Observatory wine was turned down for the crushing reason of not “tasting like a South African wine”. In the end I was submitting wines for full microbial analyses with 2 week and 4 week incubations before submitting to the WSB. No problem was ever detected in these analyses and the wines were always pronounced strangely stable but this did not seem to help.’
Lubbe adds, ‘As far as I could tell the main goal of the WSB was to supply endless rivers of £4.99 “trouble-free” plonk to English supermarkets, or any other supermarkets willing to go big,’ but he also admits that he might be biased by his bad experiences.

Conclusions
It seems that while these export panels are well intentioned, they can have the undesired effect of stifling creativity, and something needs to be done about this. ‘Surely a purchase from an importer is enough to satisfy that the wine is “saleable”!’ says Gary Mills, and he has a good point. ‘My beef is not with the process as a whole. The approval process is quite streamlined and accessible as a procedure. The tasting panel is where it gets a little murky.’ He thinks that the exclusive use of winemakers with show judging experience might work against wines that are a bit out of the ordinary. ‘What is their reference? Why should an export sale be derailed by a single subjective opinion?’
James Erskine made two suggestions to Wine Australia as to how they might improve their processes. ‘First, wines submitted to the expert tasting panel should be offered the option of providing a written introduction so that the tasters can be aware if the wine is produced in an unusual fashion and what they might expect to see. Second, we would be happy to organise a tasting together with ourselves and one of Australia’s top sommeliers to showcase some of the more unusual styles of wine that are produced and revered today as Aussie winemakers are travelling more and more and bringing home ideas and beliefs.’
Erskine thinks that with the natural wine revolution gaining traction, that ‘there will be many more challenges to come for the tasting panel of Wine Australia.’ He also thinks that these new, interesting and diverse wine styles could be good for Australia’s image abroad, if they can get past the export panels. ‘As we all know, “Brand Australia” could not be any more deflated right now and shutting down wines which don’t fit “the” mould will not allow Australia to move forward as a great producer of unique wines which should sit comfortably on the table against any great producer. We just have to break away from the homogenous mentality and national cellar palate for acidification and clean wines which we have.’
Fortunately, in Australia, people seemed to have listened, and the demise of the tasting panel is unlikely to unleash a tidal wave of bad Australian wine across the world. Perhaps New Zealand and South Africa should follow suit?

a New dimension of Berry Sorting!

The Pellenc Harvester at Graham Beck

Graham Beck Wines Harvest 2012 – News III

Catastrophe in Robertson – “State of Emergency for 30 hours”

On Sunday afternoon we had a very unfortunate breakdown when a valve of the cooling units burst and caused a short circuit on the compressor units. What a “daymare as well as nightmare” as cooling is vital during the fermentation to cool the ferments. Pierre and our students were stars and worked the whole of Sunday night to control cooling where needed the most. What a ‘juggling fare’ which I thought only happened at the circus!
Thanks to Louis who also responded quickly and had CellCool out to assess the damage and arrange for new contactors for the compressors. Well we are happy to report that we are finally up and running on Monday evening 19h15 with the cooling compressor. What a day we had today to juggle the amount of grapes to pick, not easy but there was no panic and the team was calm. Frantic cooling through Monday night should normalise the cooling and we hope that the damage to ferment’s are minimal.

The Control Switchboard before

If you thought you have seen array of pipelines on the cellar floor yesterday you ain’t seen nothing yet – it was to frantically cool the cooling water down. Now you know where the term ‘spaghetti lines” come from.
And finally CellCool arrived to repair and replace the contactors:
Now where do we start! Thanks to What’sApp we managed to download photos of the diagrams onto PietseApple (iPhone) and then I would email it to Louis and he in turn will print them, so CellCool could get going…

And finally the sound of a running cooling unit has never been so sweet!!! Thanks to ALL!!!!!

Wine & Spirit Education Trust (WSET) wine courses – now in SA

Internationally-recognised wine courses now available in South Africa! The UK-based Wine & Spirit Education Trust (WSET) wine courses – the only internationally-recognised wine courses in the world – are now available for the first time in South Africa.

These highly-regarded wine courses are seen as the industry standard in more than 55 countries around the world. If you or any of your staff are engaging with any overseas wine companies in any way, then the chances are that your customers or business associates will already hold WSET qualifications – something which can help form an instant bond and rapport between you and your staff.

The courses are rigorously taught, monitored and assessed and you can be certain that anyone achieving a WSET qualification will be able to add value to your business in many different ways. At the moment, two levels are being offered in South Africa.

Level 2 – behind the label. This course covers the major grape varieties and where they are grown around the world. Students are taught how to taste wine professionally using the WSET Systematic Approach to Tasting. This is a great course for any wine-lover, both for those working in the wine industry and for enthusiastic amateurs, and provides a sound basis of wine knowledge enabling successful candidates to interact usefully and profitably with overseas wine contacts. Course attendees will taste over 40 wines on the course, the majority of them from overseas.

Level 3 – exploring wines and spirits This course provides a more comprehensive coverage of the wide range of wines and spirits around the world. It is aimed at staff operating at a managerial or supervisory level and it is essential that anyone attempting this course have either WSET Level 2 or an equivalent level of knowledge in order to achieve success in this highly professional qualification. This qualification enables successful candidates to use the WSET logo on business cards, stationery etc and provides a thorough and rigorous depth of knowledge. Course attendees will taste at least 80 wines, approximately 95% of them from overseas and I am delighted to confirm that both Cathy van Zyl MW and Richard Kershaw MW will be lecturing on this course.

All the details of the first courses are linked above but if you have any more questions or requests, please let me know. I look forward to helping you develop and uplift your staff and grow your business opportunities and strengths with WSET. And I hope that harvest is going well for you all!

For more detail contact:

Cathy Marston

email: cathy@cathymarston.co.za

t: +27 (72) 390 9166 | f: +27 (86) 538 3112

 

The Hydrodynamics of Wine Swirling

Winetech scan newsletter

issue #49                          JANUARY 2012

Originally posted by Winetech – Newsletter Issue #49 – January 2012

In wine tasting, swirling of the glass is necessary to release the bouquet and is usually obtained by a gentle circular (orbital) movement. The wave generated by this movement propagates along the glass wall and enhances oxygenation and mixing. Recently, similar orbital shaking has been applied to large scale bioreactors for the cultivation of cells expressing recombinant proteins (e.g. antibodies), and thus the physics of the process is of significant interest.

                      

A study observed a large variety of wave shapes in the swirled glass (see above), the most simple being a wave with one crest and one trough. More complex shapes, featuring multiple crests and troughs were also observed. Under certain conditions the wave could ‘dry’ a portion of the vessel bottom, or break. Subsequent mathematical analysis found that there are three dimensionless parameters governing the shape of the free surface. Each combination of the free parameter has a peculiar balance of forces, generating a particular wave shape. A video of the various waves obtained may be downloaded at http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.3369

The Secret of Whole Bunch Pressing for Cap Classique

I am convinced that gentle handling of the grapes and then whole bunch pressing of the grapes to produce base wines for Cap Classique is the crucial catalyst in producing Cap Classique with an even a finer bubble….. watch this video and see the difference bewtween quality and press fractions. This makes the process of Cap Classique so interesting.